Direct and indirect effects of multiple stressors on stream invertebrates across watershed, reach and site scales: a structural equation modelling better informing on hydromorphological impacts
Effets directs et indirects de multiples stresseurs sur la faune des rivières à l'échelle du bassin versant, du tronçon et du site : une analyse structurelle révélant le rôle de l'hydromorphologie
Villeneuve, B. ; Piffady, J. ; Valette, L. ; Souchon, Y. ; Usseglio Polatera, P.
Type de document
Article de revue scientifique à comité de lecture
Affiliation de l'auteur
IRSTEA LYON UR RIVERLY FRA ; IRSTEA LYON UR RIVERLY FRA ; IRSTEA LYON UR RIVERLY FRA ; IRSTEA LYON UR RIVERLY FRA ; LABORATOIRE INTERDISCIPLINAIRE DES ENVIRONNEMENTS CONTINENTAUX UMR 7360 CNRS UNIVERSITE DE LORRAINE METZ FRA
Résumé / Abstract
The purpose of our approach was to take into account the nested spatial scales driving stream functioning in the description of pressures/ecological status links by analysing the results of a hierarchical model. The development of this model has allowed us to answer the following questions: Does the consideration of the indirect links between anthropogenic pressures and stream ecological status modify the hierarchy of pressure types impacting benthic invertebrates? Do the different nested scales play different roles in the anthropogenic pressures/ecological status relationship? Does this model lead to better understanding of the specific role of hydromorphology in the evaluation of stream ecological status? To achieve that goal, we used the Partial Least Square (PLS) path modelling method to develop a structural model linking variables describing (i) land use and hydromorphological alterations at the watershed scale, (ii) hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale, (iii) nutrients-organic matter contamination levels at the site scale, and (iv) substrate characteristics at the sampling site scale, to explain variation in values of a macroinvertebrate-based multimetric index: the French I2M2. We have highlighted the importance of land use effects exerted on both hydromorphological and chemical characteristics of streams observed at finer scales and their subsequent indirect impact on stream ecological status. Hydromorphological alterations have an effect on the substrate mosaic structure and on the concentrations of nutrients and organic matter at site scale. This result implies that stream hydromorphology can have a major indirect effect on macroinvertebrate assemblages and that the hierarchy of impacts of anthropogenic pressures on stream ecological status generally described in the literature - often determining strategic restoration priorities - has to be re-examined. Finally, the effects of nutrients and organic matter on macroinvertebrate assemblages are lower than expected when all the indirect effects of land use and hydromorphological alterations are taken into account.
Science of the Total Environment, num. 612, p. 660 - 671