Immune responses in the aquatic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis under short-term exposure to pharmaceuticals of concern for immune systems: Diclofenac, cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine A
Response immunitaire de Lymnea stagnalis apres une exposition a court terme à des pharmaceutiques : Diclofenac, cyclophosphamide et cyclosporine A
Boisseaux, P ; Noury, P ; Thomas, H ; Garric, J.
Type de document
Article de revue scientifique à comité de lecture
Affiliation de l'auteur
IRSTEA LYON UR MALY FRA ; IRSTEA LYON UR MALY FRA ; LITTORAL ENVIRONNEMENT ET SOCIETES UMR 7266 LA ROCHELLE FRA ; IRSTEA LYON UR MALY FRA
Résumé / Abstract
This is a pioneering study in the ecotoxicological assessment of immunotoxic effects of the three selected drugs of concern to a freshwater gastropod species. Lymnaea stagnalis was exposed in the laboratory for 3 days to three drugs used for immune systems: diclofenac (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), cyclophosphamide (anti-cancer immunosuppressive drug) or cyclosporine A (anti-xenograft immunosuppressive drug). Exposure ranges included environmental realistic (1–10 ìg L..1) and therapeutic concentrations (100–1000 ìg L..1). At the end of exposure times, the immune parameters of individual snails were measured: hemocyte density and viability, hemocyte phagocytosis capacity and hemocyte-related oxidative activities (basal and NADPH-oxidase stimulated with zymosan particles). Diclofenac and cyclosporine A induced immune responses, although the effects were not strong. No immunosuppression was observed. Such subtle immunomodulations bring further interrogations regarding their long-term immunotoxicity and possible resulting tradeoffs with life-history traits. On the other hand, the prodrug cyclophosphamide did not induce significant immune responses. Since metabolism pathways differ greatly between vertebrates and invertebrates, this study also suggests that relevant vertebrate metabolites should be included in the immunotoxicity assessment of pharmaceuticals in non-target invertebrate species. Finally, the possible interactive effects of these pharmaceuticals sharing similar modes of action or effects features should also be explored.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 139, p. 358 - 366